Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders
include trephination, exorcism, being caged like
animals, beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated,
and transfused with animal’s blood.
Trephination (boring holes in the skull to remove evil forces)
Classifying Psychological Disorders
American Psychiatric Association rendered a
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological
Most recent edition, DSM‐IV‐TR (Text Revision,
2000) describe 400 psychological disorders
compared to 60 in the 1950s.
Definition: - A psychological disorder is a disorder of the mind involving thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that cause either self or others significant distress.
Significant distress can mean the person is unable to function, meet personal needs on their own, or are a danger to the themselves or others. Another popular definition of mental illness is a person’s inability to work or to love.
DSM-IV: - Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). This reference book, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the diagnostic standard for most mental health professionals in the United States. It is abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth Edition), prepared by the Task Force on Nomenclature and Statistics of the American Psychiatric Association. It is the Association’s official manual of mental disorders and provides detailed description of categories of disorders as well as diagnostic criteria. Disorders are placed on one of five axes: axis I includes all the clinical syndromes and V codes except for personality disorders and mental retardation. Axis II includes the personality disorders and mental retardation; axis III lists any coexisting physical disorders or conditions; axis IV assesses the severity of psychosocial and environment stressors; and axis V consists of a global assessment of functioning, using a 100 point scale assessing the highest level of functioning during the past year sends the current level of functioning. There are over 300 different psychiatric disorders listed in the DSM-IV. With continued research, more are named every year and some disorders are removed or re-categorized. All Psych includes in these pages the etiology (how it develops), symptoms, treatment options, and prognosis for over 60 adult psychiatric disorders and 8 personality disorders, as well as the names and DSM Codes for over 150 disorders. Psychiatric Diagnoses are categorized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th. Edition. Better known as the DSM-IV, the manual is published by the American Psychiatric Association and covers all mental health disorders for both children and adults. It also lists known causes of these disorders, statistics in terms of gender, age at onset, and prognosis as well as some research concerning the optimal treatment approaches.
Mental Health Professionals use this manual when working with patients in order to better understand their illness and potential treatment and to help 3rd party payers (e.g., insurance) understand the needs of the patient. The book is typically considered the ‘bible’ for any professional who makes psychiatric diagnoses in the United States and many other countries.
Goals of DSM
1. Describe (400) disorders.
2. Indicate how prevalent the disorder
Disorders outlined by DSM‐IV‐TR are reliable
thus diagnosis by different professional are
Others criticize DSM‐IV‐TR for “putting any
kind of behavior within the compass of