Definition: - The word psychology is derived from two Greek words (PSYCHE + OLOGY). PSYCHE stands for Soul, mind and OLOGY mean study. It is the combination of two words Philosophy + Physiology = Psychology. We can say that Psychology is the study of soul and mind. This meaning has been altered over the years until today; this is not what the word means at all. The subject of Psychology, as studied in colleges and universities, currently has very little to do with the mind, and absolutely nothing to do with the soul or spirit.
It is important to understand that words and ideas are supposed to refer to something. “The large tree in the front yard” refers to an actual thing that can be seen, touched and experienced. “The man walking his little dog last night at sunset” refers to an actual event that can be seen, observed and experienced. The realm of mind is an actual realm that can be experienced, and a one time there were words that accurately referred to this realm.
“Psyche” is defined as:
1. The spirit or soul.
2. The human mind.
3. In psychoanalysis, the mind functioning as the center of thought, emotion, and behavior.
And defining “soul”
1. The spiritual or immortal elements in a person.
2. A person’s mental or moral or emotional nature.
Most of us would agree we have a “Psyche” per the above definitions in the sense of mind, thought, and emotions. Most would also agree they have a “soul” per the second definition above relating to man’s mental, moral or emotional nature. We might all have different notions about what these ultimately are, but few could sanely disagree they exist.
The derivation of “Psyche” comes from Latin and the Greek Psukhe – breath, life, soul. To get a better “feel” for this term try to think of it as invisible animating principle or entity that occupies, interacts with and directs the physical body. (- By Gene Zimmer)
HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient Greek. There is also evidence of psychological thought in ancient Egypt. Psychology was a branch of philosophy until the 1870s, when it developed as an independent scientific displine in Germany and the United States. Psychology borders on various other fields including physiology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, sociology, anthropology, as well as philosophy and other components of the humanities.
Psychology as a self-conscious field of experimental study began in 1879, when “Wilhelm Wundt” founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig. Wundt was also the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist and wrote the first textbook on psychology: Principles of physiological psychology. In 1860, Fechner is a Psychologist who introduced the concept of psychophysics. Sir Franchis Golden in 1869 he introduced the study of Individual.
1. THALES in 6th century B.C. he gave Naturalistic. It means “how was earth created”. It was created by soil and water.
2. SOCRATES in 430-399 B.C. he gave his principle that was APPROACH OF DETECTED. And he gave the theory of origin of nature.
3. DEMOCRATES in 460-370 B.C. he said that earth created by small atoms and also he said that there are four primary colors: Red, Black, White, Green.
4. HIPPOCRATES in 460-380 B.C. (Father of medicine) he said that there are four types of human.
• Human who are self independent and showy in nature.(PHELGNATIC)
• Human who thinks always negative, and always be depressed.(MEIACNOCHOLIC)
• Human who get angry very quickly.(CHOLERIC)
Optimistic and positive think. (SAGUNIE)
5. Plato 427-347 B.C. He gave the three basic concept
Knowledge, Desire, Emotion. He created the classification system of biology.
In 19th century the theory of Evolution given by CHARLES DARWIN.
The 20th century saw a reaction to Edward Titchener’s critique of Wundt’s empiricism. This contributed to the formulation of behaviorism by John b. Watson, which was popularized by B.F. Skinner. Behaviorism proposed limiting psychological study to that of overt behavior, because that could be quantified and easily measured. Behaviorists considered knowledge of the mind too metaphysical to achieve scientifically. The final decades of the 20th century saw the decline of behaviorism and the rise of cognitive science, an interdisciplinary approach to studying the human mind.
Psychology: - 1.As a science of soul.
2. As a science of mind.
3. As a science of consciousness.
4. As a science of behavior.
Psychology as a science of soul was not accepted because:
• Soul has no existence. It cannot be seen and heard, it has no weight and volume. It is metaphysical concept
• It makes psychology more of a religion than of science because it is theological concept and implies certain theories of religion and relationship to god.
• Soul makes psychology a speculative science as it is not open to observation and experimentation and therefore not given to verification.
According to MANN: - Psychology is the science that studies the behavior (covert-overt) of the organism with relationship to environment.
Three basic assumption of science:-
• World is real.
• Cause and effect relationship.
• Objective Knowledge.
Goals of Psychology:-
1. To understand and explain behavior.
2. Prediction and control.
3. Measurement and description.
• Now we can say that psychology is study of the human and its functions, esp. those affecting behavior in a given context.
• The mental characteristics or attitude of a person or group.
• Study of change in behavior of an individual or group in different environment.
Branches of Psychology:-
1. Experimental psychology.
2. Physiological psychology.
3. Development psychology.
4. Personality psychology.
5. Social psychology.
6. Educational psychology.
7. Industrial psychology.
8. Sports psychology.
9. Consumer psychology.
10. Clinical psychology.
11. Military psychology.
12. Counselling psychology.